We’re halfway through 2018, which means it’s time for our bi-annual review. Every six months, we look back and review the research we have covered here on the blog, highlighting the different applications for which researchers have used Lifeline® cells and the questions they have answered. For more details, please continue to visit us here on the blog every other week.

Cellular Respiration

Mitochondrial dynamics and respiration within cells with increased open pore cytoskeletal meshes. Jang and colleagues used Lifeline® Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts to study how the cytoskeleton regulates mitochondrial dynamics. They found that cytoskeletal disruptions affect mitochondrial function by altering mitochondrial fission, fusion, and cellular respiration.

Viral Infectivity

Wild-type human coronaviruses prefer cell-surface TMPRSS2 to endosomal cathepsins for cell entry. Shirato et al. used Lifeline® Normal Human Bronchial/Tracheal cells to examine how different strains of human coronavirus (HCoV) enter airway epithelial cells. Using air-liquid interface culture models in their study, they demonstrated that clinical isolates of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 use transmembrane protease serine 2, a membrane protease, to initiate cell entry.

Cell Survival and Cancer

SETD6 regulates NF-kB signaling in urothelial cell survival: Implications for bladder cancer. Using Lifeline® Normal Human Bladder Epithelial Cells, Mukherjee and colleagues investigated the role of SETD6 (a modulator of the NF-kB pathway) in bladder cancer. By manipulating SETD6 expression with overexpression and knockdown studies, the authors discovered that SETD6 promotes bladder cancer cell growth and survival by activating NF-kB signaling.

Epithelial Cell Anoikis

JNK Promotes Epithelial Cell Anoikis by Transcriptional and Post-translational Regulation of BH3-Only Proteins. Here, Girnius and Davis used Lifeline® Normal Human Mammary Epithelial cells to determine the role of JNK in anoikis (regulated cell death that occurs when cells lose attachment). Using both in vitro and in vivo models, they found that JNK mediates anoikis in through the BCL2 family of pro-apoptotic proteins.

DNA Repair and Carcinogenesis

Differential sensitivities of cellular XPA and PARP-1 to arsenite inhibition and zinc rescue. Using Lifeline® Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes, Ding et al. investigated the effects of arsenite and zinc on XPA and PARP-1, two zinc finger DNA repair proteins. The authors found that zinc and arsenite compete for binding to XPA and PARP-1, and zinc supplementation can reverse the negative effects of arsenite on XPA and PARP-1 DNA binding activity.

Dialysis and Vascular Calcification

Tumour necrosis factor-alpha in uraemic serum promotes osteoblastic transition and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinases and activator protein 1/c-FOS-mediated induction of interleukin 6 expression. In this study, Zickler, Luecht, and colleagues used Lifeline® Normal Human Coronary Artery cells to study how uremia (when the blood has high levels of urea) affects vascular calcification, the formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels. Their results illustrate that compared to serum from healthy patients, serum from uremic patients contains higher levels of TNF-α and IL-6 than healthy serum, and induces vascular calcification.

Keep up with us to read more about how researchers are using our products. Share your experience with our products and your research could be highlighted here on the blog!