Lifeline® Products in Research Studies in First Half of 2019
It’s that time again! Time for our mid-year review, where we look back on the last six months and review the variety of research being done using our cell products. From 3D tissue engineering to nanoparticle research to Zika virus, we’ve summarized some of the many ways our products are being used to answer research questions in labs around the world.
3-D Tissue Engineering: Embryo implantation involves trophoblast (the outer layer of the embryo at the blastocyst stage) invasion into the endometrium (uterine lining). Using Lifeline® human endometrial (uterine) epithelial cells, Zambutoet al, developed a new model system that can be used to study the biology of the endometrium and embryo implantation. The basis of the in vitro system was a hydrogel platform on which Lifeline® endometrial epithelial cells were able to attach and spread. Endometrial stromal and trophoblast cells could also be added to study endometrial dynamics and trophoblast invasion.
Decompression Sickness: Decompression sickness occurs when a diver returns from a pressurized underwater environment to the depressurized surface too quickly. In this context, gases, like nitrogen, come out of solution too quickly and can cause tissue damage. Using Lifeline® human dermal fibroblasts, Jang and colleagues developed an in vitro cell culture model to stimulate diving, consisting of cells grown in hyperbaric conditions. They used this model to investigate the role of mitochondrial function in decompression sickness by exposing cells to different gas mixtures. Their results illustrated that different gas combinations differentially affect mitochondrial function and dynamics.
Airways Cells Senescence and Disease: Yuan et al. used Lifeline® normal human bronchial epithelial cells to study how integrin beta 4 (ITGB4) affects airway epithelial cell senescence in asthma, where ITGB4 expression is reduced. Using in vitro and in vivo mouse models, the authors demonstrated that ITGB4 loss increased senescence, inhibited the cell cycle, and reduced anti-oxidative activity; induction of senescence by ITGB4 was decreased following loss of p53. Therefore, they concluded that decreased expression of ITGB4 in response to inflammation or oxidative stress increases p53-dependent cell senescence in airway epithelial cells.
Zika Virus Infectivity: Zika virus causes birth defects in human fetuses and has become a significant health concern for pregnant women in certain parts of the world. Caine et al. used Lifeline® human vaginal epithelial cells and human cervical epithelial cells to study the effects of interferon (IFN) signaling on Zika virus infectivity. They found that pretreatment of these cell types with IFN-lambda or IFN-beta decreased Zika virus infectivity, which was associated with an IFN response. Using in vivo mouse models, the authors also found that the anti-viral activity of IFN-lambda was hormone stage-dependent.
Nanoparticle Therapeutics: Liposomal nanoparticle delivery systems have great potential as nanodrug delivery systems, but have faced a number of challenges in development. Mattern-Schain and colleagues have been working to optimize cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-modified neutral liposomes for delivery of siRNAs to cells. In a new study this year, they used Lifeline® normal human aortic smooth muscle cells to evaluate liposome association with cells following liposomal modification with diacylglycerol (DAG) and/or phosphatidyl serine (PS). Following assessment of liposomal association, siRNA mediated knockdown of GAPDH, and cytotoxicity, the authors concluded that DAG- and/or PS-modified liposomes increased liposome association with smooth muscle cells without affecting cytotoxicity.
Dental Cement Cytotoxicity: Dental implant durability and biocompatibility often depends on the cement that holds the tooth portion of the implant to the part attached to the implant anchor. Failure to remove excess dental cement following a procedure can lead to inflammation of the surrounding tissue. Using Lifeline® human gingival fibroblasts, Marvin et al. examined the cytotoxicity of five components of dental cement. Of the five components tested, the authors found that nanostructurally integrated bioceramic and zinc phosphate were the least cytotoxic and potentially more biocompatible.
Melanoma Metastasis: Metastasis of primary melanoma to distant sites in the body is a major cause of melanoma-related death. In their 2019 study, Chen and colleagues evaluated the role of melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) and S100A8/A9 in the process of melanoma metastasis to the lung. They found that MCAM expression was higher in metastatic melanoma cell lines and that matrix metalloprotease 25 (MMP25) was a target of MCAM/S100A8/A9 signaling in melanoma. Using Lifeline® melanocytes as a normal tissue control, the authors found that MMP25 was overexpressed in melanoma cell lines. The authors concluded that MCAM/S100A8/A9 signaling through induction of MMP25 increases the invasive and migratory properties of melanoma cells.
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