Adult Stem Cells: A Critical Factor in the Maintenance of Adult Tissues
Adult stem cells are capable of self-renewal and multipotent differentiation (differentiation into multiple, but limited, cell types). In particular, mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells capable of differentiating into bone, cartilage, muscle, or fat. The role of mesenchymal stem cells in these various tissues is to help maintain homeostasis of the tissue by replenishing cells when older cells die (especially in tissues that turn over often) and producing new tissue following tissue damage.
The Lifeline® catalog contains the following stem cell types:
- Wharton’s Jelly-derived human mesenchymal stem cells
- Adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells
- Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells
- Induced pluripotent-derived neural stem cells
Lifeline® Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering Research
Plant-based materials are of great interest in the development of tissue engineering applications due to their structural similarities to mammalian tissue. In particular, the Manicaria saccifera palm produces a bract – a sort of specialized leaf – composed of fibers that are arranged in a mat-like structure potentially capable of being used as a tissue scaffold. In a new study this year, James et al. (opens in new window) evaluated the properties of these fibers and whether they were biocompatible with mammalian cells. The authors first assessed the mechanical properties of Manicaria saccifera fibers and found that the tensile strength of individual fibers was 12 ± 2 kPa and the Young’s modulus (measures stiffness) was 98 ± 11 Pa.
Next, the group tested the biocompatibility of the Manicaria saccifera fibers, which is critical for establishing their use as a biotextile. To test this, they seeded cells on the fiber mats and monitored growth and proliferation for 21 days. To ensure these fibers were compatible with multiple cells types, they tested NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, Lifeline® human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and human aortic smooth muscle cells. All cell types tested attached and proliferated throughout the 21-day testing period with limited cytotoxicity.
Next, to ensure that the Manicaria saccifera fibers did not induce an immunological response from cells, the authors seeded THP-1 human leukemia monocytes on the Manicaria saccifera fiber mats and evaluated the cellular immunological response via levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α. Compared with lipopolysaccharide treatment, which caused a dramatic upregulation in the transcript and protein expression of these cytokines, culture on Manicaria saccifera fiber mats caused a slight upregulation in IL-8 transcript levels after 24 hours, as well as increases in IL-1β and IL-8 protein levels. However, of note, these increases were much lower than those induced by lipopolysaccharide treatment.
Together, the data presented in this study suggest that Manicaria saccifera fibers are promising biotextiles with very low immunogenicity that can potentially be used in biomedical devices and tissue engineering applications.
Let us know how you are using Lifeline® cell culture products in your research and your published study could be featured here on our next blog!